The various cross-sectional element of roads and highways are shown in the fig.1 and their explanation is given below:
- Carriage Way
It is the way where the vehicles move. It may be a single lane two-way, double lane one-way, double lane two way or multi laneway.
It accommodates the stopped vehicle and provides lateral support to the pavement.
- Road Way Width
It is also known as the formation width or simply roadway as shown in fig. It is the way that includes carriageway and shoulder.
- Road Land Width
Most commonly known as Right Off Way (ROW). It is around 30-45 meter. It is measured such that there is clearance for the vehicles. Any building, trees, shops or anything of such sort is not present there. It is provided for overall safety purpose.
- Road Land / Way Boundary
It represents the line on either side of the road/highway up to which activity of any kind, is not permitted.
- Building Line
Building line represents the line on either side of the road/highway up to which no building activity is permitted. Distance between the building line on either side is around 80 meters.
- Control Line
It is the line beyond the building line up to which nature of the building is controlled. Here, a temporary activity can be permitted, like the dumping of building materials. Distance between control line is around 150 meters for NH (national highway).
It is the slight slope provided on carriageway and shoulder way to drain-off water. It is a must so that the water doesn’t erode off the roadway.
- Median / Divider
The purpose of this cross-sectional element is to prevent head-on collision of vehicles on the road. The width of the median for the highway is 5 meter, for restricted land is 3 meter and for bridges is 1.2-1.5 meter.