Components define the quality and type of UAV. The unmanned and manned aircrafts consist of almost same component except few. For a stable and proper UAV, many components are used. Its main components are discussed below.
Multi rotor frame
UAV needs to be light enough to fly and strong enough to provide a strong support and not break in minor crashes. Multi rotor frame is an important part of aircraft and it needs to exhibit these properties. UAVs have their own flight dynamics and structural integrity therefore; personal frames aren’t recommended. Different frames that serve different purposes.
The Tricopter is the UAV with three arms, with 120-degree angle between the arms. It is the lowest costing model because it needs fewer motors. Since it is not symmetric, the rear motor is more complex than the other two in order to maintain a stable flight.
The Quadcopter is a UAV. It has four arms, and is a most popular design. It is the easiest to construct and is also quite adjustable. Every flight controller work with this design. But if one of the motors fail then the UAV will most likely to crash.
A Hexacopter is a UAV with six arms. If one of the motors go out usually the other motors can make up for it and make it to ground, safely. Using more motors creates more uplift that allows the drone to lift heavier payloads. These models are usually more expensive.
An Octacopter is a UAV with eight arms. Since it has more motors it can lift heavier payloads and recover better from a failing motor. Octocopter is an expensive model.
The motor has a huge impact on the flight time and the amount of weight it can lift. The same type of motors should be used in all the rotors so that they do the same amount of work at the same time.
Most of the UAV motors are DC motors because gasoline motors are too heavy for the UAV and a battery pack provides a DC current to make the DC motors the ideal choice. The key factor when looking for your motor is the KV rating. This KV Rating of a motor gives an account of the speed of its rotation for a given voltage. A low KV is desired for stability.
Electronic speed controller
The Electronic Speed Controller, ESC, helps the flight controller to be able to control each of the motors, separately. Using this devise, the flight controller can provide the correct amount of voltage at a time so that, the entire UAV can stay stabilized.
Flight controllers are the main part of the UAV. They help to stabilize the motors and integrate them. This way even if the motors give a different output of thrust the UAV can steady itself. Flight controllers can even be programmed to take off and fly to waypoints. Flight controllers are a huge part of the UAV design since, it connects all of the pieces together. It is important to know the purpose of the UAV in order to give it the right amount of processing power.
Flight controllers perform many functions. Some of the functions of APM flight controller are:
- It has point-and-click programming/configuration.
- Multiple command modes, which isn’t common in every aircraft.
- Failsafe programming options.
- Three Axis camera control and stabilization, helps to keep eyes at various points.
- Live video link with programmable on-screen-display.
- Full data logging.
Most of the Batteries used today are lithium based batteries because of their light weight and higher charge density than typical Lead Acid and Nickel based batteries. These batteries are expensive and sometimes even have dangerous side effects.
The battery should be based on the chosen motors for the UAV. The capacity of battery pack is measured in amp-hours(Ah). The higher the capacity of the battery, the heavier it will be. Batteries are the heaviest item on a UAV so they are usually mounted on the dead centre of the drone to subject the motors to the same load.
There are various types of sensors:
Position and movement sensors: These sensors provide information about the state of the aircraft.
Exteroceptive sensors: These sensors accord with the external information like distance measurements.
Exproprioceptive sensors: These sensors associate the internal and the external states.
Non-cooperative sensors: These sensors detect targets autonomously so, they are used for separation assurance and avoidance of collision.
Propellers are a significant part of the UAVs. They come in variety of sizes and styles. Different materials are used to manufacture them.
The theoretical distance that the propeller advances along the axis of rotation in one whole revolution, is called pitch.
Low RPM engines like four-strokes, use wide blade propellers. It is so because four-strokes turn fewer RPM. The lower RPM means the air that the trailing blade is entering is less deranged. Additionally, four-strokes have more torque than two-strokes. This gives a unique advantage – a four-stroke can swing a wider propeller, efficiently.