Before getting straight into Bharat Stage 6 ( BS6) norms lets get familiar with its history and developments which happened over the years.
As the world is facing unprecedented atmospheric challenges today, every country is stepping up to face it boldly. All the fields which are primarily responsible for the pollution have started taking the positive strides in controlling the pollution. One of those fields is the automobile, which has been contributing various pollutants over the years in the atmosphere. To keep a check on the vehicle pollutants and track their emissions, the Indian government introduced a norm called Bharat Stage Emission Standards in the year 2000. This norm was made by the Central pollution control board.
The Bharat stage emission standard is based on the European emission standard i.e EURO. In the year 2016, it was decided by the government of India to skip BS5 and launch BS6 from 1st April 2020.
Why Bharat stage 5 was skipped?
The BS5 norm was eschewed due to the following reasons
- The Indian emission standards were behind European standards. This allowed the Indian standard to be at par with European standards.
- Launching BS5 firstly and then within a short span of time launching BS6 would have created as chaos in the automobile industry
What is the difference between BS5 and BS6?
The BS6 and BS4 fuel compliant vehicles will run on their respective fuels. The BS6 grade fuel for petrol and diesel cars is already available in many of the places in India.
As the BS6 norm is stricter than the BS4, there will be the introduction of real driving emission that will measure the vehicle emission in the real world than in the simulation.
In addition, there will be the use of DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) for Diesel engines. DPF and SCR will certainly reduce the Nox and sulphur content from the exhaust.
How does BS6 diesel engine work?
SCR has AdBlue which is a liquid solution of urea and deionized water. When exhaust gases come in contact with the AdBlue solution, the urea part converts into ammonia which then reacts with NOx to give nitrogen and water.
AdBlue is a registered product of the German association of the Automobile. Its cost is high currently but it will decrease as the production of BS6 vehicles increases.
Can BS4 compliant cars run on BS6 grade fuel
As both the norms are different, they require different engine and fuel which comply with them. Talking specifically for the petrol engine, the BS4 vehicle can run on BS6 petrol. This is because both the petrol engines will use the fuel which is almost similar in the chemical composition. So for petrol car owners its a win-win situation.
However, for the BS4 diesel engine, things aren’t going to be easy. The primary reason for this is that there is a difference in the chemical composition of the fuel in BS6 and BS4. Currently, diesel engine uses the fuel which has more sulphur than BS6 grade fuel. In BS4 engines the sulphur reacts with the nickel inside the combustion chamber and provides lubrication to the fuel injector, fuel pump, and other moving parts.
One can run their diesel vehicle initially on the BS6 grade fuel, but in the long run, it will eventually damage the engine.
What changes vehicle have to made in BS6 cars to run it on CNG?
BS6 vehicle whether petrol or diesel will require only minor modifications to run on CNG. The CNG is more cleaner fuel and it is more fuel-efficient than other fuel used in the vehicles. In the coming years, there would be up-gradation in CNG compliant vehicles too.