In the modern warfare, submarines play a significant role in leading any side to victory. It has been used by countries for surveillance and attack in ambush. Countries with advanced technologies started using submarines in the 19th century. It was first used in world war 1 and later mostly all the countries began to have them in their navies.

A submarine is a watercraft that is self-propelled by a diesel engine or mostly by nuclear power. Its design can have a single hull or double-hull that comprises the important components of the submarine. 

Principle and design of Submarines

The submarines use the same principle as ships- the principle of buoyancy or Archimedes principle.

Archimedes principle- It states that when a body partially or fully submerges in the liquid, an upward buoyant force acts on it equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by it.

Owing to the increase in vibration in the submarines, the equipment do not mount on the pressure hull and elastic mounting system. Instead, they mount on the suspended platforms and cradles. A submarine mainly consists of following components 

  • Pressure hull
  • Planes
  • Ballast tanks
  • Engine
  • Tower
  • Navigation systems   
  • Life-support systems

Additionally, the submarines also have Sonar system. It is an eye of the submarines for performing underwater tasks. The main objective of the sonar system is to detect any object in its vicinity.

How does submarine works?

As submarines work on the Archimedes principle, the buoyancy is changed with the help of ballast tanks to sink or float it. When a submarine is resting on the surface, it has less density than water which is positive buoyancy. At this point, the ballast tanks are full of air. In order to submerge it, the air in the ballast tank is replaced with the water, thus making submarine less dense than the water and attaining negative buoyancy. The water enters into the ballast tank by flood ports which draw a large amount of water in seconds. 

By controlling the ratio of water and air in the ballast tank, the height at which submarine will move is maintained. By maintaining the equal weight of water and air, the submarine can be on a neutral level i.e. neither sinking nor rising in the water. 

How does propelling system of Submarine works?

Earlier diesel generators were used to power the submarines. But as diesel engine requires air for running, the submarines need to move to the surface of the water after some time. This stopped submarines to remain in ambush for the longer time.

Later, nuclear submarines started using nuclear reactor and steam turbines to power it. Electric power also came into use for equipment. The unprecedented advantage nuclear submarines gave was that they can remain submerged for longer durations. Hence, successfully running their surveillance operations and attack.

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