We often hear about the hydraulic systems that are used in industries, vehicles, ships, aircraft, and many other machines. The most common example of hydraulic machines is the excavators that use their bucket to lift heavy materials to load it on the trucks. The invention of the hydraulic system has spared the laborers to do heavy work under difficult circumstances.
The hydraulic system allows the controlled application of force. This system can give rotatory or linear motion. A hydraulic system works on the principle of pascals law which states that pressure in an enclosed fluid is uniform in all the directions.
Working of Hydraulic system
There are several parts in a hydraulic system for its working. Major components are mentioned below
- storage tank
- electric pump
- pressure regulator
- control valve
- leakproof closed-loop piping.
The liquid used in the hydraulic system is incompressible. A hydraulic pump feeds the clean liquid into the system after removing the unwanted particles from liquid.
The design of hydraulic pump determines its capacity. The pump gives a constant volume of liquid in each revolution. This leads to an indefinite increase in the pressure at other ends of the piston failing.
To prevent it from failure, there is a pressure regulator which redirects the excess liquid back to the reservoir tank. In a hydraulic cylinder, ports A and port B move piston in either direction.
The leak-proof piping is also important due to safety, environmental hazards, and economical aspects.
A hydraulic pump comprises a pumping and driving motor. They are generally of two type.
Centrifugal pumps: It uses rotational kinetic energy to pump the liquid. The rotation takes place by an engine or electric motor.
Reciprocating pumps: It is also called a positive displacement pump or piston pump. It is used where a low quantity of liquid is to be used with high pressure. Its construction is similar to the working of a four-stroke engine.
Applications of hydraulic systems:
A hydraulic system allows us to use larger forces precisely. Some of the major applications of this system are
A hydraulic system is helps in the working of the brakes, assisting power steerings, shock absorbers, windshield lift, and cleaning, etc.
Paper industries, plastic processing machinery, R&D equipment, automated production lines, and in many more ways.
- Mobile hydraulics
Rail equipment, construction machinery, commercial vehicles, tunnel boring, irrigation system, earth moving equipment, etc.
The working of breaks, shock absorbers, assistance in the steering systems, windshields, lift, and cleaning, etc. is based on a hydraulic system.
- Aerospace equipment
Rudder control, landing gear, breaks, flight control, and transmission, etc. also find the use of hydraulic systems in them. These systems are also present in airplanes, rockets, and spaceships.