Back in the days when you would slam the brake pedal hard, it would result in the locking of the wheel. This used to result in the loss of stability of the car. Today, things have improved significantly in the braking of the car. Now you can cruise through any terrain and stop your car without any skid. Anti-locking system or ABS has made the braking more efficient and safe for the cars. In this article, we are going to discuss anti-lock braking system(ABS and its working

What is anti-lock braking system?

ABS is the system that stops the wheel of the car from locking. It allows the maximum braking on the wheel without making them skid. This maintains the necessary handling and stability of the car.

What are the components of the ABS

There are four main components of the ABS:

  • SPEED SENSOR
  • VALVES
  • PUMP
  • CONTROLLER

SPEED SENSOR

The speed sensor monitors the speed of each wheel and finds the acceleration and deacceleration of the wheels. It comprises a wire/coil magnet and an exciter which produces an electric pulse when passed in front of the coil magnet.

VALVES

The valves change the air pressure in the brakes when ABS works. Each brake line has valves to be worked under ABS. The valves have three positions 

In first position,the valve is open and the pressure from the master cylinder is passed through the brake and in second position, the valve blocks the line resulting in isolating the brake from the master cylinder. In third position, the valve releases some of the pressure from brakes.

PUMP

Pump regulates and restores the air pressure into the brakes that are released by the brakes.

CONTROLLER

The ABS systems comprise an electronic control unit that processes all the ABS information and signal functions. The ECU gets the information from each wheel and regulates the braking as required in each wheel.

BRAKE TYPES

There are different types of brakes in ABS depending on the channels 

  • One channel
  • Two-channel 
  • Three-channel

WORKING OF ABS OR ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM

When the brake pedal has pushed the fluid in the master cylinder moves into the HCU inlet port via open solenoid valves and then to the outlet ports of HCU to each wheel. Once the fluid reaches each wheel it locks them, when the control module senses the locking up of the wheel and sends the signal to open the solenoid valves for the particular wheel. The anti brake control module then observes the anti-lock brake signal from the affected wheel and once it reaches to it normal states, the control module relays the solenoid valves in their normal position too.

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