The advancement of technology has led to using batteries as the power supply source. There are two kinds of batteries, namely – rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries. The advancement of technology hasn’t stopped here as more flexible and eco-friendly batteries are being produced.

A paper battery is a thin storage device, used as a battery and a capacitor. It is flexible and is the combination of carbon nanotubes and cellulose nanocomposite paper.

Properties of Paper Battery

  • High-energy storage capacity
  • High energy density
  • Extreme power
  • Excellent porosity
  • Biodegradability
  • Recyclability
  • Non-toxic
  • High tensile strength
  • Good absorption capacity
  • Low mass density
  • Low shear strength
  • High packing density
  • Lightweight
  • Better electrical conductivity
  • Low resistance


A paper battery is constructed using carbon nanotube, lithium metal, different types of electrolytes including blood, urine and sweat and a paper (cellulose separator).

Black ink is applied and spread on a cellulose-based paper. After spreading this ink, a thin film is laminated over the cellulose surface. Then, it is heated for five minutes under the temperature of 80 degrees Celsius. The film is peeled off from the substrate. The electrodes of paper battery are formed by the film. The electrolytes LTO and LCO are connected to different films. To check the functioning of the formed paper battery, its terminals are connected to the LED.


When the paper of the battery is dipped in ion-based liquid, due to the chemical reaction between the electrodes from cathode to anode terminal, electricity is generated. The paper-electrode stores the energy within a few seconds due to the quick flow of the ions during recharging. To increase the paper battery output, it preferred to stack a number of batteries together.

This stacking up of batteries can cause a short circuit between cathode and anode terminal. There will be zero current flow if anode terminal comes in contact with cathode terminal. This short circuit is avoided using a barrier or a separator, paper separator, between the two.

Advantages of Paper Battery

  • Needs less space; can be folded, rolled and cut to fit.
  • Functions as a battery as well as a capacitor
  • Is economical, biocompatible and biodegradable
  • Generates electrical energy up to 1.5V
  • Can obtain customised output voltage as per the requirement

Disadvantages of Paper Battery

  • Carbon nanotubes are expensive
  • E-wastage is generated
  • Its wastage is harmful to the lungs if inhaled.


  • Used in laptops, mobiles, calculators, mouse, keyboard, cameras, Bluetooth devices, etc
  • Used in artificial tissues, drug delivery system and cosmetics
  • In the automotive and aerospace industry because of its lightweight

Read What is Lithium-Ion battery? How is it changing the world?

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