A microscope is an instrument which is used to see objects which are not visible to the naked eyes. The science of examining the small objects and structures using this is known to be Microscopy.

Properties of A Microscope

A good microscope tends to exhibit the following properties –

  • Good resolution
  • Good magnification
  • Good contrast

Types of Microscopes

1. Compound Microscope

Mostly used in school laboratories and wastewater treatment plants, these are also called a biological microscopes. Blood cells, cheek cells, bacteria, algae, parasites, tissue and other thin linings of the organs can be seen through this one. It’s magnification is 40x, 100x, 400x and 1000x.

2. Stereo Microscope

This is used to see the 3D image of an object with the magnification of 10x to 40x. It is used in quality control, science, manufacturing and botany. It gives reflected as well as transmitted illumination and is used to examine the objects that do not allow light to pass through it.

3. Metallurgical Microscope

This is used to investigate micron level cracks in metals, grain sizing damage and thin layers of coating. These are high power microscopes with the magnification of 50x, 100x, 200x and 500x. These are mainly used in automobile and aerospace industries to analyse the metallic structures, glass, ceramics and wood. Also, it is used to investigate liquid crystals.

4. Inverted Microscopes

This one is available as metallurgical inverted as well as biological inverted microscopes. In this type, the user can place the petri dish on a flat stage with the objective lenses installed beneath the stage. The magnification of this one ranges from 40x to 100x and 200x to 400x. These are used for live-cell imaging, cell biology, developmental biology and in-vitro fertilization.

5. Polarizing Microscopes

This provides both transmitted and reflected illumaination with polarized light. These are utilized by geologists, chemists and petrologists. Also, pharmaceutical industry uses this microscope on the daily basis.

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